Many scientists, engineers, and spacecraft pilots of Lithuanian origin participated in Soviet space programmes. 1969 – the first cosmonaut of Lithuanian origin, Aleksey Yeliseyev-Kuraitis, entered space on board the spaceship Soyuz and took part in three successful space missions. Beginning in the 1970s, planetologist George Burba was involved in the Luna/Lunokhod, Mars, and Venera programmes.
1988 – Rimantas Stankevičius was scheduled to become a commander of the Soviet space shuttle Buran. He became a test pilot and joined the cosmonaut force, taking part as a reserve crewman of the Soyuz spaceship several times.
More than one hundred scientists and engineers of Lithuanian origin have been involved in space activities and space missions at NASA (U.S.A.): Arvydas Kliore (Mariner, Pioneer, Venus, Galileo, and Cassini), Anthony Dobrovolskis (Pioneer and Venus), Vytenis Vasyliunas (Voyager and Galileo), Arvydas Vaisnys (Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), Romualdas Kasuba (Saturn IV and Lunar Excursion Module), Martynas Kregzde (Apollo and the Space Shuttle programmes), Julius Jodele (Ranger and Mariner), and many others.
Algirdas Avizienis has developed principles of fault-tolerant design for computer components used in space.